CHARLEMAGNE° (742–814), king of the Franks from 768, emperor of the West from 800. Charlemagne was well disposed toward the Jews. A Jew, isaac , was a member (probably interpreter) of the delegation he sent to the caliph Harun al-Rashid. He was the only one to return from Baghdad, and brought back an elephant, Rashid's gift to the emperor. Charlemagne also had dealings with Jewish merchants, especially with an expert in jewelry. Some of his legal provisions were clearly influenced by the theological issues of his day. Thus he forbade the Jews to employ Christians to work on Sundays and Christian festivals and warned against the sale of church property to the Jews; when a Jew brought a charge against a Christian, he was required to have more witnesses than a Christian. Some legal documents, probably wrongly attributed to Charlemagne, indicate that there was a tendency to worsen the legal status of the Jews, e.g., by forcing them to take a humiliating oath. On the other hand, the legendary tales which flourished immediately after his death and gained greater currency from the 12th century onward extol Charlemagne's friendship for the Jews and make special mention of his appointment of a nasi, a "Jewish king," in Narbonne. They credit him with giving the Jews of that city special rights in recognition of their support when Narbonne was taken from the Muslims. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Graetz, Hist, 3 (1894), 141–4; Baron, Social2, index; B. Blumenkranz, Juifs et Chrétiens… (1960), passim; Grabois, in: Le Moyen Age, 72 (1966), 5–41; idem, in: Tarbiz, 36 (1966/67), 22–58. (Bernhard Blumenkranz)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • CHARLEMAGNE — Le plus prestigieux des souverains de la seconde dynastie franque, à qui il a donné son nom («Carolingiens»), poursuivit la politique d’expansion du royaume inaugurée par ses prédécesseurs et se trouva, vers la fin du VIIIe siècle, à la tête d’un …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Charlemagne — • Biography of the emperor covering his political, military, and religious entanglements Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Charlemagne     Charlemagne      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Charlemagne — ist der Name von: Karl der Große (englische und französische Bezeichnung, 747/748 814), König des Fränkischen Reiches und römischer Kaiser Charlemagne ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Adolf Jossiffowitsch Charlemagne (1826 1901),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Charlemagne — Le nom est assez courant dans le Nord Pas de Calais. Variantes : Charlemaigne, Charlemain, Charlemaine, Charlemein et sans doute Charlemoine (nom porté dans l Orne). Lié au célèbre empereur (= Charles le grand), ce devrait être un surnom ironique …   Noms de famille

  • Charlemagne — (fr., spr. Scharlmanje), Karl der Große …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Charlemagne — (franz., spr. scharl mánnj ), franz. Name für Karl den Großen (lat. Carolus Magnus) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Charlemagne — (frz., spr. scharl mánnj), Karl der Große …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Charlemagne —   [ʃarlə maɲ], französischer Name Karls des Grossen.   …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Charlemagne — king of the Franks (742 814), lit. Carl the Great, from French form of M.L. Carolus Magnus (see CHARLES (Cf. Charles) + MAGNUS (Cf. Magnus)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Charlemagne — [shär′lə mān΄] A.D. 742 814; king of the Franks (768 814): emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (800 814): also called Charles I or Charles the Great …   English World dictionary

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